Every living cell and thus every organism (including humans, animals, and plants) are made up of protein molecules. Every plant contains some protein, but its quantity and quality varies. In general, the majority of plant-based proteins do not contain all the essential amino acids and they are difficult to digest compared to animal proteins, such as whey and egg white. Vegetarians can make an attempt to mix proteins with different amino acid profiles, thus putting together the necessary amount from various sources. As another alternative, they can choose one of the few complete profile plant-based proteins such as soy protein or pigeon pea.
Soybean is native to East Asia; it is a species of legume. The plant is classified as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. Soybean contains approximately 18% of oil and 35% of protein. 95% of the extracted oil is processed as cooking oil. One alternative of animal protein sources might be the protein extracted from soybean. Since it is low in fat and carbohydrate, it can properly supplement a low-calorie diet. Soy protein is launched onto market in the form of soy protein isolate. Its solubility is worse than whey protein’s; furthermore, its taste is not as neutral as whey protein’s.
Average protein content: 85-90%
Average amino acid profile of soy protein in 100g:
Alanin 3,7g Arginin 7,1g Aspartic acid 10,7g L-Glutamin 18g Cisztein 1,2g Glycin 3,7g Histidin 2,4g Isoleucin 3,8g Leucin 6,9g Lysin 5,7g Methionin 1,2g Phenylalanin 4,8g Prolin 4,7g Serin 5,0g Threonin 3,2g Tryptophan 0,9g Tyrosin 3,6g Valin 4,8g
Yellow split-pea is a culinary preparation made of the peeled, dried, and split seeds of green pea. One alternative of animal protein sources might be the protein extracted from yellow split-pea. Since it is low in fat and carbohydrate, it can properly supplement a low-calorie diet. Yellow split-pea protein is launched onto market in the form of yellow split-pea protein isolate. Its solubility is worse than whey protein’s; furthermore, its taste is not as neutral as whey protein’s.
Average protein content: 85-90%
Average amino acid profile of pea protein in 100g:
Alanin 4,4g Arginin 9,1g Aspartic acid 12,5g L-Glutamin 20,3g Cisztein 1,1g Glycin 4,1g Histidin 2,7g Isoleucin 4,7g Leucin 8,7g Lysin 7,7g Methionin 1,2g Phenylalanin 5,6g Prolin 4,4g Serin 5,6g Threonin 3,9g Tryptophan 1,0g Tyrosin 3,9g Valin 5,2g
Rice belongs to the Poaceae family. Rice serves as staple food for 60% of the world’s human population. Due to its essential amino acid content, its biological value is similar to animal proteins’. Only a fragment of whole grain rice’s weight is protein which is extracted from rice flakes by fermentation, microfiltration, enyzmatic process, and wet grinding. Since rice protein is low in both fat and carbohydrates, it can appropriately supplement a low-calorie diet.
Average protein content: above 70%
Wheat belongs to the Poaceae family. Due to the fact that its species have different climate demands, and they are adaptive, they are cultivated worldwide. Moreover, some of the species are known as the oldest among cultivated plants. As mentioned above, it is grown worldwide except for desert and polar regions. Statistically, it prevails over other cereal grains. Wheat protein does not suitable for protein supplement in itself, because it does not have a complete amino acid profile. It can cause allergic reaction in people with gluten sensitivity. Wheat protein is launched onto market in the form of wheat protein concentrate.
Average protein content: above 80%
Average amino acid profile of wheat protein in 100g:
Alanin 2,3g Arginin 3,0g Aspartic acid 2,6g L-Glutamin 31,2g Cisztein 2,3g Glycin 3,0g Histidin 1,8g Isoleucin 2,9g Leucin 5,6g Lysin 1,4g Methionin 1,5g Phenylalanin 4,0g Prolin 9,3g Serin 4,0g Threonin 2,1g Tryptophan 0,8g Tyrosin 2,6g Valin 3,2g