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All about creatines


Creatine is a compound which is made up of three amino acids. Our body produces 1 gram of it per day. Meat and fish are natural sources of creatine. In muscles, creatine phosphate is needed for the regeneration of ATP. The supplement raises creatine- and creatine phosphate level of muscles, which improves performance. The total creatine stored in the body of a person weighing 70kg (150pounds) is approximately 120 grams from which between 1.5 and 2 gramms are lost and then supplemented on a daily basis. Creatine is synthesized in the liver, in the pancreas, and in the kidney by arginine, methionine, and other amino acids and enzymes. Synthesized creatine gets into the bloodstream. The loss of creatine is about 2% a day and is excreted in urine. Creatine extracted from food sources and creatine produced by our body make up for the loss. Insufficient folic acid and B12 intake might limit the natural production of creatine. The purpose of creatine supplement is to rise the body’s level of creatine and creatine phosphate (the supplement may indirectly rise the glycogen concentration in human skeletal muscle too), since these play an important role in the regeneration of ATP. For this reason, it might be effective in case of anaerobic, short-term, repeated load. Bodybuilders often use the substance, because it quickly boosts muscle power and improves stamina.creatines

Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine monohydate is an amino acid derivative which energizes muscles via attracting water into myocytes through membranes. Its use together with amino acids and proteins might result in outstanding power and an increase in muscle mass. Creatine monohydrate is one of those few dietary supplements which exerts its effect in a spectacular, quick, and safe way. The purpose of supplement is to rise the body’s level of creatine and creatine phosphate (the supplement may indirectly rise the glycogen concentration in human skeletal muscle too), since these play an important role in the regeneration of ATP. In dietary supplements, the monohydrate and phosphate formulas are common, but there are several new formulas whose efficacy is not yet confirmed by experiments. Creatine improves athletic performance significantly in various sports. Its effect is more powerful in repetitive, short-term, high-intensity workouts than in endurance sports. Creatine supplementation has two phases: a loading phase (5 to 7 days) and a maintenance phase. The purpose of the loading is to saturate the muscles with creatine as quickly as possible. During the loading phase, the dosage is 5 grams in 4-5 equal doses per day. 1 dl fluid is recommended per gram in addition to the adequate daily intake of fluids. During the maintenance phase, the dosage is 5-15 grams depending on body weight.

Recommended daily amont: loading 20-25 g, maintenance 5-15 g

Designer creatine and transport systems

Creatine transport systems

Creatine transport systems are products which contain not only creatine, but also other substances that help in the utilization of creatine and that block its early degradation. Creatine is transported to the muscles by insulin, for this reason, one of the most important properties is the cause of insulin reaction.

First-generation creatine transport systems

Insulin reaction caused by glucose added to creatine makes the absorption of the product more effective.

Second-generation creatine transport systems

Insulin imitators and salt contribute to better absorption.
One of the most important additives of second generation transport systems is ribose which is a special carbohydrate.

Third-generation creatine transport systems

These products are the so called effervescent creatines; creatine is protected against gastric acid and early degradation.

Designer Creatines

Designer creatines are combinations of different types of creatines. There is a wide variety of these products, and it is up to the manufacturer what creatine products they mix and in what proportion.

Possible components:

  • Creatine monohydate
  • Designer creatines and transport systems
  • Other creatines

Other creatine supplements

Although creatine monohydrate has proven its efficacy for decades, due to some of its unfavourable effects, such as water retention and stomach problems, several manufacturers attempt to find its more effective alternative. One possible alternative is to connect other molecules and chains to the “traditional” creatine molecule.

Creatine Ethyl Ester

Creatine Ethyl Ester (CEE) is a creatine monohydrate to which an ethyl ester chain is connected, so it supports the absorption of creatine from the stomach and helps creatine to get into myocytes. Esterification increases the lipopolic properties of creatines, thus esterified creatine is able to get through the cell membrane more efficiently making use of the transport processes of the lipid bilayer. Due to the higher value of utilization, there is no need for the loading phase, and in the maintenance phase a smaller dose is sufficient.

Manufacturers’ dosing recommendation: daily 3-5 g

Creatine HCL

Creatine HCL is a relatively new type of creatine which was discovered during the production of creatine ethyl ester. The solution and utilization of this form is much better than creatine monohydrate’s; furthermore, it does not cause water retention and stomach problems.

Manufacturers’ dosing recommendation: daily 3-5 g

Creatine alkalyne

Creatine alkalyne is a type of creatine having correct pH and containing creatine in buffered form thanks to which it slows down the pH sensitive creatine’s conversion to useless creatine. It is intended to make it more stable and more available in the body more efficiently.

Manufacturers’ dosing recommendation: daily 3-5 g